Timeline

  • 30 January 1933

    Reich President Paul von Hindenburg names Adolf Hitler Reichskanzler.

  • 28 February 1933

    The “Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State” abolishes civil liberties across Germany.

  • March/April 1933

    Stormtroopers (SA) and police step up raids in the Scheunenviertel, in part in order to rob and arrest the Jews living there.

  • From mid-March 1933

    The new State Commissioner of Berlin, Julius Lippert, imposes local employment bans on Jewish doctors and lawyers.

  • 24 March 1933

    The “Enabling Act” gives Hitler plenary powers, enabling him to enact laws without consulting the Reichstag.

  • 30 March 1933

    In Berlin, municipal institutions are no longer allowed to advertise in newspapers that are considered “Jewish”, including those published by Mosse Verlag.

  • 1 April 1933

    The Nazis call for a boycott and the destruction of Jewish-owned shops. In Berlin, customers at “Jewish” shops are filmed and/or photographed so that they can later be identified.

  • Early April 1933

    All Jewish teachers at city schools are put on administrative leave.

  • April 1933

    All public tenders must include the so-called “Aryan Paragraph”.

  • 7 April 1933

    Passage of the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service, enabling the regime to remove Jews and political opponents of National Socialism from government service. Exceptions are made only for Jews who had been employed before 1914 and those who had served as front-line soldiers during the First World War.

  • Mid-April 1933

    (Partial) freezing of state funding for the Jewish Social Welfare Organization in Berlin and its preschools, after-school programs and daycare centers.

  • 25 April 1933

    By law, the percentage of Jews at schools and universities may not exceed their share of the general population (just under 4 percent).

  • April/May 1933

    National laws impose occupational restrictions and bans on Jewish lawyers, accountants and university instructors as well as on public service employees.

  • April/May 1933

    In six Berlin districts, Jewish food pantries may no longer accept municipal food stamps.

  • From April/May 1933

    Jewish youths and youth organizations are either denied or allowed only limited access to sports facilities, swimming pools and youth centers.

  • From April/May 1933

    Jewish cultural institutions are no longer referred to in city tourism brochures.

  • From April/May 1933

    Jewish organizations may no longer rent or lease city-owned real estate.

  • Early May 1933

    The “German student body” in Berlin and elsewhere is called upon to boycott lectures by Jewish instructors.

  • 10 May 1933

    In Berlin and numerous other cities in the Reich, books by Jewish authors and authors disliked by the Nazis for other reasons are publicly burned.

  • Mid-May 1933

    “Non-Aryan” private tutors are no longer permitted to teach in Berlin.

  • June 1933

    In Berlin, patients entitled to choose their own doctor may only consult non-Jewish doctors.

  • 1 July 1933

    No one enrolled in the National Health Insurance program, be he or she Jewish or non-Jewish, may be admitted to the Jewish Hospital in Wedding.

  • 11 July 1933

    The Gestapo begins to compile lists of all Jewish associations and individuals across Germany who are known to have been involved in politics.

  • 14 July 1933

    Enactment of laws on the revocation of naturalization and deprivation of German citizenship as well as on the confiscation of property of “enemies of the people and the State”.

  • 15 August 1933

    Withdrawal of licenses for stockbrokers of Jewish origin in Prussia.

  • Mid-August 1933

    Jews are no longer permitted to swim at Wannsee Beach.

  • September / October 1933

    A virtually complete and nationwide occupational ban is imposed on Jewish artists and journalists.

  • October 1933

    The Berlin “Red-White” tennis club expels “non-Aryan” members.

  • November 1933

    The Berlin “Red-White” tennis club additionally expels the spouses of “non-Aryans”.

  • December 1933

    Jews can no longer be members of sporting associations in Berlin.

  • 24 Januay 1934

    Nationwide expulsion of Jews from labor unions as well as from management positions at companies.

  • 6 June 1934

    Prussian teachers who married or intend to marry non-Aryans after 1 July 1933 are dismissed.

  • 18 June 1934

    Despite the exception made for First World War front-line soldiers in the national law, a city ordinance bans Jews from becoming employees of the Berlin city administration.

  • 18 July 1934

    Jewish sports clubs must be organized within a consortium and can only use sports facilities and swimming pools when these are not needed by the Reich Federation for Physical Training or the national associations.

  • 2 August 1934

    Following the death of Reich President Paul von Hindenburg, Adolf Hitler becomes “Führer und Reichskanzler” (“Leader and Imperial Chancellor”).

  • September / October 1934

    In Berlin’s Tiergarten district, the construction of sukkahs (temporary huts built on the occasion of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot) on balconies or in back courtyards is forbidden, allegedly out of concerns over their structural safety. This ban will remain in place in the years to follow.

  • 9 January 1935

    Effective 1 April 1935, only the cemetery committee of the Jewish Community is authorized to perform pauper’s funerals for poor Jews.

  • 15 July 1935

    Doctors married to Jews are no longer permitted to treat poor patients in the context of charity care.

  • 15 July 1935

    After an inflammatory article appears in the “Völkischer Beobachter”, pogroms target Jewish-owned shops on Kurfürstendamm.

  • 16–19 July 1935

    Violent riots against Jews take place on the Ku’damm and at Wannsee Beach as well as in the Hansa-Viertel, Pankow, Moabit and Neukölln. No police action is ordered until a week after the attacks. At Wannsee Beach, a sign banning Jews is mounted. This sign will be temporarily removed during the 1936 Olympic Games on the orders of the Reich Foreign Ministry.

  • 19 July 1935

    For a week, Jewish-owned ice-cream parlors in Berlin are obliged to close at 7 p.m.

  • 25 July 1935

    Jews across Germany are barred from active military service.

  • July/August 1935

    Boycott campaigns against Jewish-owned businesses take place in many cities and towns in Germany.

  • 12 August 1935

    An abusive banner is hung from the New Synagogue. It shows a Jew in tattered clothing with the caption: “This is how the Jews will leave Germany”.

  • 17 August 1935

    The Gestapo begins setting up a national card file on Jewish individuals and organizations.

  • 15 September 1935

    Proclamation of the anti-Semitic “Nuremberg Laws”: Jews become “second-class” citizens. Jews and non-Jews are now forbidden to marry or engage in sexual relations.

  • 23 September 1935

    Board meetings of the Jewish Community in Berlin are now held under police observation.

  • 14 November 1935

    Across Germany, Jews are formally stripped of their active and passive voting rights.

  • January 1936

    Various municipal housing authorities send eviction notices to their Jewish tenants.

  • 2 April 1936

    Jewish children are no longer permitted to attend municipal or private preschools or daycare centers.

  • 1 August 1936

    Opening of the Olympic Summer Games in Berlin.

  • 18 October 1936

    Hermann Göring is entrusted with the implementation of the “Four-year plan” for the rearmament of Germany.

  • By December 1936

    Commercial licenses to rent chairs and benches on squares and parks in the city of Berlin are granted only to non-Jews.

  • By December 1936

    The Berlin police arbitrarily close a number of Jewish-owned meat and sausage factories.

  • January 1937

    A campaign to ban all Jewish bookstores and publishing houses is launched.

  • 9 April 1937

    Children of Jewish origin are banned from attending remedial classes at public elementary schools.

  • Mid-April 1937

    Disbanding of the Jewish B’nai B’rith lodge, temporary arrest of all its members, destruction of the organization.

  • 11 May 1937

    Police employees must, according to a directive, keep personal communication and official correspondence with Jews to a minimum.

  • By July 1937

    When opening restaurants, Jews must display a sign reading “Jewish Restaurant”.

  • 10 October 1937

    The Nazi labor union “Deutsche Arbeitsfront” (German Labor Front) provides information about the Jewishness or non-Jewishness of business owners.

  • By November 1937

    In Berlin the first yellow benches designated “Only for Jews” are installed. Other park benches are labeled “Forbidden to Jews”.

  • 16 November 1937

    According to a directive of the Reich Interior Ministry, only in exceptional cases are passports to be issued to Jews. These include emigration, the illness or death of a relative abroad or similar circumstances.

  • January 1938

    Jews originally from the USSR are expelled from the Reich.

  • January 1938

    Jewish re-migrants are threatened with incarceration in concentration camps.

  • 13 March 1938

    The “annexation” of Austria by the German Reich.

  • From Spring 1938

    Decrees on the segregation of Jews within the Berlin public welfare sector.

  • 1 April 1938

    The number of retail stores run by Jews in Berlin has almost halved since 1933, dropping from 6,000 to 3,105.

  • 26 April 1938

    Ordinance on the obligation to register Jewish assets. Jews have to register their domestic and foreign assets valued at more than 5,000 Reichsmarks.

  • April/May 1938

    The Central Office of the Berlin State Police draws up plans for the ghettoization of Berlin’s Jews.

  • 20 May 1938

    Youth welfare offices withdraw from or refuse to grant permission to care for a child to foster parents if one of them is Jewish.

  • 9 June 1938

    Extensions or suspensions of the obligation to pay dog tax are no longer granted to Jewish debtors.

  • 13 June 1938

    Establishment of a “Jewish Affairs Department” within the office of the Berlin Chief of Police.

  • 13–20 June 1938

    Raids against “asocials” take place across Germany, during which 2,500 Jews are also arrested. Vandalism of Jewish institutions in the Reich. The Berlin police carry out raids on restaurants belonging to Jews on Kurfürstendamm. The SD, SA and the NDSAP foment pogroms against Jews in Berlin.

  • 14 June 1938

    Nationwide ordinances define “Jewish businesses”. Such businesses are to be “eliminated” from economic life. These regulations serve as the basis for the now intensified “Aryanization” of businesses.

  • 28 June 1938

    The Berlin district of Wilmersdorf excludes Jewish mothers from accessing municipal infant and childcare services.

  • 12 July 1938

    Jewish traders are excluded from selling at outdoor markets in Berlin.

  • 20 July 1938

    The Berlin chief of police Wolf-Heinrich von Helldorf (1896-1944) issues a rash of discriminatory measures designed to drive Jews to emigrate. These include exorbitant penalties for traffic violations as well as the denial of business licenses and the prohibition on gun ownership.

  • 23 July 1938

    Jews must apply for a police-issued identity card, which they must show while identifying themselves as Jews during ID checks.

  • 27 July 1938

    The Reich Interior Ministry orders that all streets and squares named after Jews be renamed.

  • 11 August 1938

    For the coming winter, Jews in Berlin will be denied access to warming stations.

  • 1 September 1938

    The non-profit Berlin Housing Development Association threatens all Jewish tenants with eviction proceedings should they not vacate their apartments in favor of “Aryan” tenants. The Jewish tenants affected have virtually no chance of having the charges dismissed in court.

  • 29 September – 1 October 1938

    Conference in Munich, annexation of parts of Czechoslovakia by Germany (“Munich Agreement”).

  • 5 October 1938

    By decree, the passports of Jews throughout Germany are declared invalid. Passports for travel abroad will only become valid when they have been stamped with a “J”, identifying their holders as Jews.

  • 27/28 October 1938

    Deportation of Polish Jews from the Reich. In Berlin, police arrest Jews of Polish origin, who are transported by train to the German-Polish border.

  • 8 November 1938

    The Gestapo and the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda forbid all Jewish newspapers with the exception of the controlled and censored “Jüdisches Nachrichtenblatt”. First pogroms in northern Hesse and Anhalt.

  • 9/10 November 1938

    State-orchestrated November pogrom (“Reichskristallnacht”): Across Germany, widespread desecration of synagogues, destruction of the homes and businesses of Jews, as well as a wave of arrests of Jewish individuals. Over one hundred people are murdered. In Berlin, the Stormtroopers (SA) and Hitler Youth (HJ) as well as passersby are primarily responsible for the violence.

  • November/December 1938

    Numerous, nationwide resolutions serve to limit the economic freedom of Jewish businesses, “Aryanize” Jewish assets, introduce compulsory charges on Jews, limit educational opportunities for Jews, and oblige them to perform forced labor.

  • 1 December 1938

    The Central Agency of the Berlin Employment Office is granted authority over all work placement and insurance-related questions for unemployed Jews in the capital. In the years that follow, all forced labor deployments of Jews from Berlin will be organized from here.

  • 3 December 1938

    The Berlin chief of police bans Jews from certain areas of the city. Jews living in such areas must obtain passes that are valid for just a few months. Other Jews are forbidden from entering these areas, which include parts of Wilhelmstraße as well as sections of Unter den Linden and Voßstraße. Jews are furthermore forbidden on police orders from attending theaters, cinemas, cabarets, concerts and lectures as well as from visiting fairs, sports grounds, swimming pools and trade fairs.

  • 8 December 1938

    From April 1938, ailing Jews can only be treated at the Jewish Hospital on Schulstraße. However, due to overcrowding at this hospital, Jews in Berlin may in unavoidable emergencies also be admitted to municipal facilities.

  • 12 December 1938

    From the beginning of the new year, Jewish adults and children will no longer be eligible for municipal food assistance.

  • Late December 1938

    The last Jewish retail operations are closed or ownership is forcibly transferred to “Aryans”.

  • 2 January 1939

    Restrictions on municipal social services available to Jewish new mothers and Jewish foster children and youths in care.

  • 10 January 1939

    By order of the Berlin chief of police, the additional first name of Sara or Israel—which since the beginning of the year Jewish women and men, respectively, have had to add to their own name so as to identify themselves as Jews—must be placed directly before their last name.

  • 20 January 1939

    Jews residing in public or private homes for the aged, sanatoria, shelters or other facilities will be registered so that in future they can be accommodated elsewhere.

  • 8 February 1939

    Residential and commercial real estate in Berlin or Munich that is rented by a non-Jewish landlord to Jewish tenants is to be reported. This does not apply to real estate that is already in the process of being “Aryanized”.

  • 17 February 1939

    The Reich Association of Jews in Germany is founded under duress. It encompasses all Jewish organizations, foundations and associations in the Reich. Beginning of the creation of a Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Berlin.

  • 1 March 1939

    For Jews throughout Germany, unemployment benefits, which were previously open-ended, are now limited to 20 weeks.

  • 15 March 1939

    Complete occupation of Czechoslovakia by the Reich

  • 23 March 1939

    German troops invade the Memel Territory.

  • 1 April 1939

    Jews are henceforth forbidden from entering public libraries and reading rooms.

  • 11 April 1939

    The Berlin State Youth Welfare Office decrees that in guardianship cases in which the father is not named by the mother, the possibility that the father is of non-Aryan origin must be investigated.

  • 30 April 1939

    Nationwide suspension of protective rights for Jewish tenants with respect to “Aryan” landlords. Jewish landlords may only take on tenants with the permission of the local authority. Jews may only enter into relations of subtenancy with other “non-Aryans”. Jews can be forced by municipal authorities to accept Jewish subtenants.

  • 16 May 1939

    The Main Public Relief Office in Berlin assigns Jews who apply for public assistance because their curtailed unemployment benefits have run out to one of three forced labor programs intended only for Jews.

  • 17 May 1939

    The category of “race statistics” is introduced for the analysis of nationwide census data.

  • 4 July 1939

    All Jews must become members of the Reich Association of Jews in Germany. The provision of welfare services, schooling and emigration assistance to Jews are the primary tasks of the Reich’s Association, which is under police observation. Within it, all of the larger Jewish communities are combined, with the exception of that of Berlin, which will remain autonomous until 1943.

  • 1 September 1939

    German invasion of Poland. Beginning of the Second World War.

  • 3–6 September 1939

    The Reich Association of Jews in Germany is forced to gather statistics on all Jews aged between 16 and 55 years. All Jewish households in Berlin receive a questionnaire to assess their members statistically for future deployment as forced laborers. Events sponsored by the Cultural Federation are cancelled. Jews nationwide are placed under an 8 p.m. curfew.

  • Mid-September 1939

    More than a thousand Jews from Berlin are conscripted for four months to work in the potato and turnip harvest in Brandenburg.

  • 20 September 1939

    Within three days, Jews must surrender all radios in their possession at state collection points.

  • September 1939

    Ban on the construction of sukkahs for the holiday of Sukkot in synagogue courtyards or by private individuals.

  • September / October 1939

    Jews from border regions are relocated in their hundreds to the country’s interior. Polish Jews are arrested; those living in Berlin are sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

  • December 1939

    Restrictions on the supplies that Jews can obtain with Reich ration cards.

  • 23 January 1940

    Jews no longer receive ration cards for clothing, shoes and resoling materials.

  • 10-12 February 1940

    Deportation of Polish Jews from Pomerania to occupied Poland.

  • 26 February 1940

    Berlin Jews who have been forcibly conscripted to clear snow receive a wage cut.

  • 1 March 1940

    From now on, Jewish communities must report all instances of emigration to the Gestapo.

  • 19 March 1940

    Across Germany, listings of the names of Jewish telephone customers in the telephone book must include the mandatory supplementary names of Sara or Israel.

  • 22 March 1940

    Ordinance on the closure and clearance of the Spandau Jewish Cemetery as well as the removal and transfer of the remains of the dead.

  • 6 April 1940

    In a toughening of the national regulation, supplementary food allowances for heavy laborers in Berlin are limited in the case of Jews to those individuals working in armaments factories and factories belonging to the Wehrmacht.

  • 9 April 1940

    Beginning of the German invasions of Denmark and Norway.

  • 24 April 1940

    On the orders of the Reich Security Main Office, Jews “fit for military service and labor deployment” should emigrate to other European countries, but not to countries hostile to Germany.

  • April 1940

    Above all in food shops, signs indicating that Jews are allowed to enter only after 12 o’clock proliferate.

  • April/May 1940

    All Jewish men between the ages of 18 and 55 as well as Jewish women between 18 and 50 are ordered to register with the authorities responsible for labor deployments.

  • 10 May 1940

    German assault on the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg and France.

  • 20 May 1940

    On the orders of the mayor of Charlottenburg, all food stores in the district with the exception of bakeries are to display signs indicating that Jews are allowed access only after 12 p.m.

  • Late May 1940

    The Central Agency of the Berlin Employment Office obliges Jewish forced laborers to identify themselves by wearing yellow Stars of David on their chest and back. After protests from the Reich Association, the Gestapo rescinds the regulation. After the clearing of the Spandau Jewish Cemetery, Jews are no longer permitted to set foot on the grounds.

  • June 1940

    Some 200 Jewish patients are deported from the Berlin-Buch mental asylum and gassed in a killing center (formerly a prison) in the city of Brandenburg. This marks the beginning of the mass murder of Jewish asylum inmates.

  • 25 June 1940

    Reich Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels expresses a wish for Jews to be permitted to shop only after 3:30 p.m.

  • 4 July 1940

    The Berlin police chief orders that Jews be allowed to shop at outdoor markets and to purchase items from street traders only between 4 and 5 p.m. Jewish forced laborers can apply for permission to shop during a different time slot.

  • 6 August 1940

    Services may no longer be held at the New Synagogue in Berlin. The Army Logistics Agency now utilizes the building as a clothing warehouse.

  • 14 August 1940

    In a toughening of the nationwide requirement that Jews must carry their identity card with them at all times, the Berlin chief of police orders that police, public officials and representatives of the NSDAP impose criminal charges on Jews who are found to be in non-compliance. The interrogation of those charged may not take place in writing but only in person, after the issuing of a personal summons.

  • 31 August 1940

    Jews in Berlin must surrender their telephones. One month later this order is extended to Jews in the rest of the Reich.

  • 10 September 1940

    In Berlin, Munich and Vienna (now also within the Reich), Jewish tenants lose their protective rights vis-à-vis Jewish landlords, as well. At the same time, it becomes more difficult for Jewish landlords to evict Jewish tenants. Both of these measures serve to make it easier to concentrate Jews into “Jew-houses”.

  • 21 September 1940

    Separate air raid shelters have to be built in buildings occupied by Jews.

  • October 1940

    Mass conscription of Jews for forced labor in the Reich.

  • Late October 1940

    Deportation to France of many thousands of Jews from Baden, the Palatinate and the Territory of the Saar.

  • 1 November 1940

    In Mitte, separate emergency shelters are set up for Jews rendered homeless by airstrikes.

  • 1 January 1941

    An extraordinary tax of 15 percent is now imposed on the wages of Jewish forced laborers.

  • 24 January 1941

    Jews in Berlin may only patronize one company for shoe repairs.

  • February / March 1941

    Thousands of Jews are deported to Poland from Vienna.

  • Late March 1941

    Mass expulsion of Berlin’s Jews from their apartments within the framework of the plans for “Germania”.

  • 6 April 1941

    Beginning of the German assaults on Yugoslavia and Greece.

  • 22 June 1941

    The German invasion of the USSR begins.

  • Mid-July 1941

    The Jewish Community of Berlin is obliged to register all Jewish women up to the age of sixty with the Gestapo. These data are passed on to the Employment Office.

  • 31 July 1941

    Hermann Göring entrusts Reinhard Heydrich with the complete “evacuation” of the Jews.

  • July/August 1941

    Berlin’s Jewish forced laborers are denied supplementary food allowances for long, hard and heavy labor.

  • Early August 1941

    Jews are now forbidden to emigrate from the “Greater German Reich”.

  • August 1941

    The General Building Inspector for the new design of the Reich capital city orders that 5,000 “Jew-apartments” be vacated.

  • September 1941

    Jews are allowed only limited access to public transportation. Jews must wear the identifying “Jewish Star” on their clothing. They are forbidden from leaving the municipality in which they reside.

  • 18 September 1941

    Jews are forbidden from moving to Berlin on the orders of the local Gestapo.

  • 18 October 1941

    First deportations of Jews from Berlin to Łódź.

  • 14 November 1941

    Beginning of the deportations of Jews from Berlin to Minsk and Riga.

  • 12 December 1941

    Jews are no longer allowed to use public telephones.

  • Dezember 1941

    First mass killings of Jews using automobile exhaust.

  • January 1942

    Jews throughout Germany must surrender their woolen and fur clothing as well as their ski and hiking boots.

  • 20 January 1942

    The “Wannsee Conference” on the “Final solution to the Jewish question” is held.

  • 24 March 1942

    Jews across Germany are no longer allowed to use municipal transportation. Exceptions are made for school children, employees of Jewish institutions, and forced laborers who live more than one hour’s walk or 7 kilometers from their place of work.

  • 9 May 1942

    Further sections of the Ku’damm, Tauentzienstrasse and Unter den Linden are closed to Jews.

  • 15 May 1942

    Jews are forbidden from keeping house pets. Owners must have their dogs, cats and other pets registered for delivery by the 20th of the month.

  • 6 June 1942

    First deportations of Jews to the Theresienstadt concentration camp.

  • 11 July 1942

    First deportation of Berlin Jews to the Auschwitz concentration camp.

  • 18 September 1942

    Severe restrictions are placed on the supplies Jews can access with their ration cards.

  • 9 October 1942

    Jews are forbidden from purchasing books in bookstores.

  • 27 February 1943

    Nationwide completion of deportations. In Berlin, thousands of Jews who are married to non-Jews as well as “half-breeds” (“Mischlinge”), as the Nazis defined them, are arrested in the context of the so-called “Factory Action”.

  • 6 June 1944

    Allied landing in France.

  • 20 July 1944

    Failed attempt to assassinate Hitler.

  • March/April 1945

    Last deportation of Jews from Berlin.

  • 25 April 1945

    First contact between the Western allies and Soviet troops on German soil in Torgau/Elbe.

  • 30 April 1945

    Suicide of Adolf Hitler.

  • 2 May 1945

    Capitulation of the Reich capital Berlin.

  • 8/9 May 1945

    Unconditional surrender of the German military forces. End of the Second World War in Europe and North Africa.